National Collegiate Athletic Association

American collegiate athletic organization

NCAA divisions
Division I
Division II
Division III
  • v
  • t
  • e

The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)[b] is a nonprofit organization that regulates student athletics among about 1,100 schools in the United States, and one in Canada.[3] It also organizes the athletic programs of colleges and helps over 500,000 college student athletes who compete annually in college sports.[3] The organization is headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana.

Until 1957, the NCAA was a single division for all schools. That year, the NCAA split into the University Division and the College Division.[4] In August 1973, the current three-division system of Division I, Division II, and Division III was adopted by the NCAA membership in a special convention. Under NCAA rules, Division I and Division II schools can offer scholarships to athletes for playing a sport. Division III schools may not offer any athletic scholarships. Generally, larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III. Division I football was further divided into I-A and I-AA in 1978, while Division I programs that did not have football teams were known as I-AAA. In 2006, Divisions I-A and I-AA were respectively renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) and Football Championship Subdivision (FCS). In its 2022–23 fiscal year, the NCAA generated $1.28 billion in revenue, $945 million (74%) of which came from airing rights to the Division I men's basketball tournament.[5]

Controversially, the NCAA substantially restricts the kinds of benefits and compensation (including paid salary) that collegiate athletes could receive from their schools. The consensus among economists is these caps for men's basketball and football players benefit the athletes' schools (through rent-seeking) at the expense of the athletes.[6][7][8] Economists have subsequently characterized the NCAA as a cartel.[9][10][11] In 2021, the Supreme Court of the United States unanimously ruled that some of these NCAA restrictions on student athletes are in violation of US antitrust law.[12] The NCAA settled a lawsuit in May 2024 allowing member institutions to pay Division I athletes who have played since 2016.


Formation and early years

Intercollegiate sports began in the United States in 1852 when crews from Harvard and Yale universities met in a challenge race in the sport of rowing.[13] As rowing remained the preeminent sport in the country into the late-1800s, many of the initial debates about collegiate athletic eligibility and purpose were settled through organizations like the Rowing Association of American Colleges and the Intercollegiate Rowing Association. As other sports emerged, notably football and basketball, many of these same concepts and standards were adopted. Football, in particular, began to emerge as a marquee sport, but the rules of the game itself were in constant flux and often had to be adapted for each contest.

The NCAA dates its formation to two White House conferences convened by President Theodore Roosevelt in the early 20th century in response to repeated injuries and deaths in college football which had "prompted many college and universities to discontinue the sport."[1] Following those White House meetings and the reforms which had resulted, Chancellor Henry MacCracken of New York University organized a meeting of 13 colleges and universities to initiate changes in football playing rules; at a follow-on meeting on December 28, 1905, in New York, 62 higher-education institutions became charter members of the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States (IAAUS).[1] The IAAUS was officially established on March 31, 1906, and took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910.[1]

For several years, the NCAA was a discussion group and rules-making body, but in 1921, the first NCAA national championship was conducted: the National Collegiate Track and Field Championships. Gradually, more rules committees were formed and more championships were created, including a basketball championship in 1939.[14]

A series of crises brought the NCAA to a crossroads after World War II. The "Sanity Code" – adopted to establish guidelines for recruiting and financial aid – failed to curb abuses, and the Association needed to find more effective ways to curtail its membership.[15] Postseason football games were multiplying with little control, and member schools were increasingly concerned about how the new medium of television would affect football attendance.[14]

The NCAA engaged in a bitter power struggle with the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU).[16][17] The complexity of those problems and the growth in membership and championships demonstrated the need for full-time professional leadership.

Walter Byers, previously an assistant sports information director, was named executive director in 1951.[14] The Harvard Crimson described Byers as "power-mad," The New York Times said that Byers was "secretive, despotic, stubborn and ruthless," The Washington Post described him as a dictator, and others described him as a "petty tyrant."[16][18][19][20][21][22][verification needed][23]

Byers wasted no time placing his stamp on the Association, and a national headquarters was established in Kansas City, Missouri, in 1952.[14] A program to control live television of football games was approved, the annual Convention delegated enforcement powers to the Association's Council, and legislation was adopted governing postseason bowl games.[14]


The NCAA logo used from 1971 to 1979

As college athletics grew, the scope of the nation's athletics programs diverged, forcing the NCAA to create a structure that recognized varying levels of emphasis. In 1973, the association's membership was divided into three legislative and competitive divisions – I, II, and III.[24] Five years later in 1978, Division I members voted to create subdivisions I-A and I-AA (renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision and the Football Championship Subdivision in 2006) in football.[14]

Until the 1980s, the association did not govern women's athletics. Instead, the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW), with nearly 1,000 member schools, governed women's collegiate sports in the United States. The AIAW was in a vulnerable position that precipitated conflicts with the NCAA in the early-1980s. Following a one-year overlap in which both organizations staged women's championships, the AIAW discontinued operation, and most member schools continued their women's athletics programs under the governance of the NCAA.[25] By 1982 all divisions of the NCAA offered national championship events for women's athletics. A year later in 1983, the 75th Convention approved an expansion to plan women's athletic program services and pushed for a women's championship program.[14]

Presidents Commission

Proposals at every NCAA Convention are voted on by the institutional members of the NCAA. Each institutional member has one representative: the president/CEO or a representative designated by him/her.[26] Attendance by the actual president/CEO was low; less than 30%.[26] Southern Methodist University President A. Kenneth Pye commented, "In too many cases, presidents have not only delegated responsibility, they have abdicated it."[26] Many presidents designated their athletic director as the institutional representative, something Pye compared to "entrusting a chicken coop to the supervision of a wolf and a fox."[26] Beginning around 1980, a group of college presidents thought there was a crisis of integrity in collegiate sports and discussed ways to transform athletics to match the academic model. The American Council on Education (ACE) proposed a presidential board empowered to veto NCAA membership actions, while the NCAA Council, whose membership was mostly athletic officials, suggested a presidential commission with advisory powers. The Council's proposal may have been intended to block the presidential effort to gain control of the NCAA. The two proposals were voted on by the membership at the NCAA Convention in January 1984. The ACE proposal was defeated by a vote of 313 to 328. The Council proposal passed on a voice vote without ballots.[26] Publicly, the Presidents' Commission (PC) was responsible for establishing an agenda for the NCAA, but the actual language of the proposal stated that their role was to be a presidential forum and to provide the NCAA with the president's position on major policy issues. The PC could study issues and urge action, call special meetings and sponsor legislation. Their one real power was to veto the selection of Executive Director.[26][27] The composition of the commission was 22 CEOs from Division I and 11 CEOs each from Divisions II and III.[28] The true intent of the PC was to shift control of intercollegiate athletics back to CEOs. Graduation rates were an important metric to chancellors and presidents and became a focus of the PC.[29][30]

In June 1985 a special convention was held to review legislative proposals including academic integrity, academic-reporting requirements, differences in "major" and "secondary" violations including the "death penalty" and requiring an annual financial audit of athletic departments. All proposals passed overwhelmingly. Many presidents who did not attend sent a vice-president rather than their athletic director.[26] University of Florida President Marshall Criser stated that "the ultimate responsibility must be assumed by the CEOs because we don't have enough NCAA cops to solve all of the problems."[26]

The regular NCAA meeting in January 1986 presented proposals in regard to college eligibility, drug testing, and basketball competition limits.[31] All passed but matters regarding acceptable academic progress, special-admissions and booster club activities were ignored. Many presidents did not attend and it appeared that athletic directors controlled the meeting. A survey of 138 Division I presidents indicated that athletic directors did control collegiate sports. Despite a moratorium on extending the season of any sport in 1985, the extension of basketball and hockey seasons were approved. Indiana University president John W. Ryan, outgoing chairman of the PC commented, "If the moratorium is vacated, it's being vacated not by the commission, but by this convention."[26] Following the vote, a delegate was quoted, "A lot of Athletic Directors figure they've successfully waited out the presidents...unless the presidents fight back, NCAA reform is flat-ass dead in the water."[26]

The PC proposed just one legislative issue at the January 1987 meeting: applying the minimum academic standards in Division I to Division II. It narrowly passed.[26]

The PC attempted to again push the reform of college athletics by calling another special convention which was held in June 1987 to discuss cost-cutting measures and to address the overemphasis on athletics in colleges and universities. John Slaughter, Chancellor of the University of Maryland served as chairman. He stated, "This represents the second major thrust since our commission was formed three years ago. The first involved academics and infractions. This will be equally momentous and more sweeping. We want to achieve a balance between athletics and other institutional programs."[28] Cost-cutting measures proposed included reductions in athletic financial aid, coaching staff sizes, and length of practice/playing seasons. A resolution was also floated that opposed coaches receiving outside financial compensation if outside activities interfere with regular duties.[28] All the PC proposals were defeated, and two basketball scholarships were restored that were eliminated at the meeting in January. It was apparent that there was an open conflict between college presidents.[26] The president of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching Ernest L. Boyer summarized the situation: "There are presidents whose institutions are so deeply involved in athletics that their own institutional and personal futures hang in the balance. They feel they must resist such change because athletics are bigger than they are."[26]

The PC sponsored no legislation at the January 1988 annual meeting, and there was not a vote of confidence.[26]

However, a year later at the annual meeting, financial aid restrictions were proposed for specific Division I and II sports. Following extensive discussions, the measure was withdrawn and a Special Committee on Cost Reductions was formed to study the issue. Once again, a proposal from the PC was circumvented.[26]

The Presidents' Commission met in October 1989 to prepare for the 1990 NCAA annual meeting. Proposals were developed to shorten spring football and the basketball season; grant financial aid based on need to academically deficient athletes; and reporting of graduation rates. Chancellor Martin Massengale of the University of Nebraska was then chairman of the PC insisted that graduation rate data was needed to preclude "further need for federal legislation" that was being proposed by Representative Tom McMillen and Senator Bill Bradley.[26] The proposals demonstrated that the PC was intent on regaining control of college athletics and the opposition was immediate. Commissioner of the Big Ten Conference Jim Delany responded, "They tend to want quick answers and you don't solve the complexities of intercollegiate athletics. Yes, presidents are involved, but the truth is, they really don't have time to be involved."[26] Bo Schembechler was blunt, "Unfortunately, you're dealing with people who don't understand. We're trying to straddle the fence here because you still want me to put 100,000 (fans) in the stadium and the reason you want me to do it is because you're not going to help me financially at all."[26] In 1990, the University of Michigan head football coach and athletic director resigned his college job to become president of the Major League Baseball Detroit Tigers. Upon his departure, he predicted, "In the next five years, school presidents will completely confuse intercollegiate athletics directors, then they'll dump it back to athletics directors and say, 'You straighten this out.' About 2000, it may be back on track."[26]

Presidential turnout for the January 1990 meeting was good and many who did not attend sent a delegate to vote for the PC. The graduation reporting proposal passed overwhelmingly, and the proposal for need-based non-athletic aid passed easily. The final proposal to shorten basketball and spring football generated fierce debate. There was a motion to defer the proposal for study that failed 383–363, but the many PC members relaxed, confident of victory. PC Chairman Massengale left the meeting for other business, but during lunch, council members began lobbying and twisting arms to change votes. When the session resumed, council members began criticizing the PC and quickly executed a parliamentary maneuver to refer the proposal to the NCAA Council. Many PC members were still at lunch when a roll call vote passed 170–150. University of Texas women's athletic director Donna Lopiano complained, "The Presidents' Commission needs to do what it does best, and that is to macro-manage. Leave the micro-management to the various expert groups. We will bring back solutions."[26] Numerous presidents were shocked, upset and angry, but the remaining PC members began their own lobbying and arm-twisting. An hour later, there was a sense that representatives who had voted against the direction of their respective presidents had reconsidered, and a motion was made to reconsider by Lattie F. Coor, president of Arizona State University. West Point Lieutenant General Dave Richard Palmer urged the vote, stating the NCAA needed "to make a mark on the wall...delay is the deadliest form of denial." [26] Following discussion, compromise and voting on minor issues, the reconsideration motion passed, and the third proposal was adopted with a vote of 165–156.[26]

The Presidents Commission held hearings beginning on May 9, 1991, to develop stronger academic standards.[32]

The Presidents Commission lasted for 13 years and pushed through initiatives such as restricting the size of coaching staffs; limiting how much time student-athletes can spend on their sports; and setting more demanding academic standards for Divisions I and II.[33] By the 1980s, televised college football had become a larger source of income for the NCAA. In September 1981, the Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma and the University of Georgia Athletic Association filed suit against the NCAA in district court in Oklahoma. The plaintiffs stated that the NCAA's football television plan constituted price fixing, output restraints, boycott, and monopolizing, all of which were illegal under the Sherman Act. The NCAA argued that its pro-competitive and non-commercial justifications for the plan – protection of live gate, maintenance of competitive balance among NCAA member institutions, and the creation of a more attractive "product" to compete with other forms of entertainment – combined to make the plan reasonable. In September 1982, the district court found in favor of the plaintiffs, ruling that the plan violated antitrust laws. It enjoined the association from enforcing the contract. The NCAA appealed all the way to the United States Supreme Court, but lost in 1984 in a 7–2 ruling NCAA v. Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma.[34] (If the television contracts the NCAA had with ABC, CBS, and ESPN had remained in effect for the 1984 season, they would have generated some $73.6 million for the association and its members.)

Late 1990s

In 1999, the NCAA was sued for discriminating against female athletes under Title IX for systematically giving men in graduate school more waivers than a woman to participate in college sports. In National Collegiate Athletic Association v. Smith, 525 U.S. 459 (1999) the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the NCAA was not subject to that law, without reviewing the merits of the discrimination claim.[35]

Over the last two decades recruiting international athletes has become a growing trend among NCAA institutions. For example, most German athletes outside of Germany are based at US universities. For many European athletes, the American universities are the only option to pursue an academic and athletic career at the same time. Many of these students come to the US with high academic expectations and aspirations.[36]

In 2009, Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada, became the NCAA's first non-US member institution, joining Division II.[37][38] In 2018, Division II membership approved allowing schools from Mexico to apply for membership; CETYS of Tijuana, Baja California expressed significant interest in joining at the time.[39][40]

A men's soccer match between Canada's only NCAA school, Simon Fraser University, and Idaho's Northwest Nazarene University in 2012

In 2014, the NCAA set a record high of $989 million in net revenue. Just shy of $1 billion, it is among the highest of all large sports organizations.[citation needed]

During the NCAA's 2022 annual convention, the membership ratified a new version of the organization's constitution. The new constitution dramatically simplifies a rulebook that many college sports leaders saw as increasingly bloated.

It also reduces the size of the NCAA Board of Governors from 20 to 9, and guarantees that current and former athletes have voting representation on both the NCAA board and the governing bodies of each NCAA division. The new constitution was the first step in a reorganization process in which each division will have the right to set its own rules, with no approval needed from the rest of the NCAA membership.[41][42]

Notable court cases

  • In the late-1940s, there were only two colleges in the country, Notre Dame and Pennsylvania, with national TV contracts, a considerable source of revenue. In 1951, the NCAA voted to prohibit any live TV broadcast of college football games during the season. No sooner had the NCAA voted to ban television than public outcry forced it to retreat. Instead, the NCAA voted to restrict the number of televised games for each team to stop the slide in gate attendance. University of Pennsylvania president Harold Stassen defied the monopoly and renewed its contract with ABC. Eventually, Penn dropped its suit when the NCAA, refusing Penn's request that the U.S. Attorney General rule on the legality of the NCAA's restrictive plan,[43] threatened to expel the university from the association. Notre Dame continued televising its games through 1953, working around the ban by filming its games, then broadcasting them the next evening.[44]
  • In 1957, the Colorado Supreme Court dismissed a lawsuit filed by the family of deceased Trinidad College football player Ray Herbert Dennison. Despite suffering a lethal concussion injury on the field in a game versus Fort Lewis A&M College, Dennison was not entitled to any compensation because he was not under a contractual obligation to play football. Furthermore, the court stated that the "college did not receive a direct benefit from the activities, since the college was not in the football business and received no benefit from this field of recreation".[45]
  • In 1977, prompted partly by the Tarkanian Case, the US Congress initiated an investigation into the NCAA.[46] It, combined with Tarkanian's case, forced the NCAA's internal files into the public record.[47]
  • In 1984, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in NCAA v. Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma that the NCAA's complete control of television rights violated the Sherman and Clayton Antitrust Acts, paving the way for schools and conferences to independently make deals with TV broadcasters directly.[34][48]
  • In 1998, the NCAA settled a $2.5 million lawsuit filed by former UNLV basketball coach, Jerry Tarkanian. Tarkanian sued the NCAA after he was forced to resign from UNLV, where he had been head coach from 1973 to 1992. The suit claimed the agency singled him out, penalizing the university's basketball program three times in that span. Tarkanian said, "They can never, ever, make up for all the pain and agony they caused me. All I can say is that for 25 years they beat the hell out of me". The NCAA said that it regretted the long battle and it now has more understanding of Tarkanian's position and that the case has changed the enforcement process for the better.[49]
  • In 1999, the NCAA was sued for discriminating against female athletes under Title IX for systematically giving men in graduate school more waivers than a woman to participate in college sports. In National Collegiate Athletic Association v. Smith, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the NCAA was not subject to that law, without reviewing the merits of the discrimination claim.[35][50]
  • In 2007, the case of White et al. v. NCAA, No. CV 06-999-RGK (C.D. Cal. September 20, 2006) was brought by former NCAA student-athletes Jason White, Brian Pollack, Jovan Harris, and Chris Craig as a class action lawsuit. They argued that the NCAA's current limits on a full scholarship or grant-in-aid was a violation of federal antitrust laws. Their reasoning was that in the absence of such a limit, NCAA member schools would be free to offer any financial aid packages they desired to recruit the student and athlete. The NCAA settled before a ruling by the court, by agreeing to set up the Former Student-Athlete Fund to "assist qualified candidates applying for receipt of career development expenses and/or reimbursement of educational expenses under the terms of the agreement with plaintiffs in a federal antitrust lawsuit."[51]
  • In 2013, Jay Bilas claimed that the NCAA was taking advantage of individual players through jersey sales in its store. Specifically, he typed the names of several top college football players, Tajh Boyd, Teddy Bridgewater, Jadeveon Clowney, Johnny Manziel, and A. J. McCarron, into the search engine of the NCAA's official online store. The search results returned corresponding numbered team jerseys. The NCAA subsequently removed the team jerseys listed on its site.[52]
  • In March 2014, four players filed a class action antitrust lawsuit (O'Bannon v. NCAA), alleging that the NCAA and its five dominant conferences are an "unlawful cartel". The suit charges that NCAA caps on the value of athletic scholarships have "illegally restricted the earning power of football and men's basketball players while making billions off their labor".[53] Tulane University Sports Law Program Director Gabe Feldman called the suit "an instantly credible threat to the NCAA." On September 30, 2015, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit ruled that limiting compensation to the cost of an athlete's attendance at a university was sufficient. It simultaneously ruled against a federal judge's proposal to pay student athletes $5,000 per year in deferred compensation.[54]
  • In August 2015, the National Labor Relations Board reversed a decision settled in the prior year that classified members of Northwestern University's scholarship football players as employees, thus, granting them the right to collectively bargain for their rights. The unionization efforts were a direct effort led by the College Athletes Player Association and Kain Colter, who operated with the support of the United Steelworkers group.[55] The case was ultimately struck down due to difficulties in applying the ruling across both public and private institutions. The NCAA made several improvements to the value of athletic scholarships and the quality of healthcare coverage in response to this movement by the Northwestern football players.[55] These reforms included guaranteeing the entire four years of scholarship in the event of a career-ending injury, the implementation of "cost of attendance" stipends, the institution of "unlimited" athlete meal plans, and protections for the name, image, and likeness of athletes by third parties such as Electronic Arts.[55]
  • In 2018, former UCF kicker Donald De La Haye filed a lawsuit alleging that the university violated his First Amendment rights when it rescinded his full athletic scholarship over the income De La Haye made from his monetized YouTube channel, which he started before he attended college. UCF argued De La Haye violated the NCAA policy forbidding student-athletes from using their likenesses to make money.[56] De La Haye ultimately settled with UCF so that he could obtain his degree from the university.
  • In June 2021, the Supreme Court of the United States unanimously affirmed a ruling in NCAA v. Alston that provides for an incremental increase in how college athletes can be compensated. Justice Neil Gorsuch wrote the court's opinion, which upheld a district court judge's decision that the NCAA was violating antitrust law by placing limits on the education-related benefits that schools can provide to athletes. The decision allows schools to provide their athletes with unlimited compensation as long as it is some way connected to their education. The idea that college athletes should not be paid, a fundamental tenet of the 115-year-old NCAA, has faced increasing scrutiny in recent years. Federal antitrust lawsuits have slowly eroded strict amateurism rules during the past decade.[57]


The modern era of the NCAA began in July 1955 when its executive director, Kansas City, Missouri native Walter Byers, moved the organization's headquarters from the LaSalle Hotel in Chicago (where its offices were shared by the headquarters of the Big Ten Conference) to the Fairfax Building in Downtown Kansas City. The move was intended to separate the NCAA from the direct influence of any individual conference and keep it centrally located.

The Fairfax was a block from Municipal Auditorium which had hosted men's basketball Final Four games in 1940, 1941, and 1942. After Byers moved the headquarters to Kansas City, the championships would be held in Municipal Auditorium in 1953, 1954, 1955, 1957, 1961, and 1964. The Fairfax office consisted of three rooms with no air conditioning. Byers' staff consisted of four people: an assistant, two secretaries, and a bookkeeper.[58]

In 1964, the NCAA moved three blocks away to offices in the Midland Theatre, moving again in 1973 to a $1.2 million building on 3.4 acres (14,000 m2) on Shawnee Mission Parkway in suburban Mission, Kansas. In 1989, the organization moved 6 miles (9.7 km) farther south to Overland Park, Kansas. The new building was on 11.35 acres (45,900 m2) and had 130,000 square feet (12,000 m2) of space.[59]

The NCAA was dissatisfied with its Johnson County, Kansas suburban location, noting that its location on the southern edges of the Kansas City suburbs was more than 40 minutes from Kansas City International Airport. They also noted that the suburban location was not drawing visitors to its new visitors' center.[60]

In 1997, it asked for bids for a new headquarters. Various cities competed for a new headquarters with the two finalists being Kansas City and Indianapolis. Kansas City proposed to relocate the NCAA back downtown near the Crown Center complex and would locate the visitors' center in Union Station. However Kansas City's main sports venue Kemper Arena was nearly 23 years old.[60] Indianapolis argued that it was in fact more central than Kansas City in that two-thirds of the members are east of the Mississippi River.[60] The 50,000-seat RCA Dome far eclipsed 19,500-seat Kemper Arena. In 1999, the NCAA moved its 300-member staff to its new headquarters in the White River State Park in a four-story 140,000-square-foot (13,000 m2) facility on the west edge of downtown Indianapolis, Indiana. Adjacent to the headquarters is the 35,000-square-foot (3,300 m2) NCAA Hall of Champions.[61]


The NCAA's Board of Governors (formerly known as the Executive Committee) is the main body within the NCAA. This body elects the NCAA's president.[62]

The NCAA's legislative structure is broken down into cabinets and committees, consisting of various representatives of its member schools.[citation needed] These may be broken down further into sub-committees. The legislation is then passed on to the Management Council, which oversees all the cabinets and committees, and also includes representatives from the schools, such as athletic directors and faculty advisers. Management Council legislation goes on to the Board of Directors, which consists of school presidents, for final approval. The NCAA national office staff provides support by acting as guides, liaisons, researchers, and by managing public and media relations.

The NCAA runs the officiating software company ArbiterSports, based in Sandy, Utah, a joint venture between two subsidiaries of the NCAA, Arbiter LLC and eOfficials LLC. The NCAA's stated objective for the venture is to help improve the fairness, quality, and consistency of officiating across amateur athletics.[63][64]

Presidents of the NCAA

The NCAA had no full-time administrator until 1951, when Walter Byers was appointed executive director.[1] In 1998, the title was changed to president.[65]

Chief medical officer

In 2013, the NCAA hired Brian Hainline as its first chief medical officer.[69]

Division history

Before 1957, all NCAA sports used a single division of competition. In 1957 the NCAA split into two divisions for men's basketball only, with major programs making up the University Division and smaller programs making up the College Division.[4] The names could be confusing, as some schools with "University" in their name still competed in the College Division while some with "College" in their name competed in the University Division. The split gradually took hold in other sports as well. Records from before the split were inherited by the University Division.

In 1973 the College Division split up between teams that wanted to grant athletic scholarships (becoming Division II, which inherited the College Division's records and history) and teams that did not (becoming Division III), and the University Division was renamed to Division I. Division I split into two subdivisions for football only in 1978 (though both still under the Division I name), with Division I-A consisting of major teams who would continue to compete in bowl games and use various polls to decide its champion and Division I-AA consisting of smaller teams who would compete in the new NCAA Football Tournament to decide its champion.[70] Division I schools without football teams were known as Division I-AAA. In 2006, Division I-A became the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), Division I-AA became the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS), and Division I-AAA became Division I non-football. The changes were in name only with no significant structural differences to the organization.

Years Division
1906–1957 None
1957–1972 University Division (Major Colleges) College Division (Small Colleges)
1973–present Division I Division II Division III
1978–2006 Division I-A (football only) Division I-AA (football only) Division I-AAA
2006–present Division I FBS (football only) Division I FCS (football only) Division I (non-football)

"National Collegiate" sports

For some less-popular sports, the NCAA does not separate teams into their usual divisions and instead holds only one tournament to decide a single national champion between all three divisions (except for women's ice hockey and men's indoor volleyball, where the National Collegiate championship only features teams from Division I and Division II and a separate championship is contested for only Division III). The 11 sports which use the National Collegiate format, also called the single-division format, are women's bowling, fencing, men's gymnastics, women's gymnastics, women's ice hockey, rifle, skiing, men's indoor volleyball, women's beach volleyball, men's water polo, and women's water polo.[71] The NCAA considers a National Collegiate title equivalent to a Division I title even if the champion is primarily a member of Division II or III.[72] These championships are largely dominated by teams that are otherwise members of Division I, but current non-Division I teams have won 40 National Collegiate championships since the University Division/College Division split as of 2022 (2 in bowling, 20 in fencing, 8 in women's ice hockey, and 10 in rifle).[72] Division III schools are allowed to grant athletic scholarships to students who compete in National Collegiate sports, though most do not.

Men's ice hockey uses a similar but not identical "National Collegiate" format as women's ice hockey and men's indoor volleyball (Division III has its own championship but several Division III teams compete in Division I for men's ice hockey), but its top-level championship is branded as a "Division I" championship. While the NCAA has not explained why it is the only sport with this distinction, the NCAA held a separate Division II championship from 1978 to 1984 and again from 1993 to 1999. As of 2023, 12 Division I men's ice hockey championships have been won by current non-Division I teams since the University Division/College Division split. Like with National Collegiate sports, schools that are otherwise members of Division III who compete in Division I for men's ice hockey are allowed to grant athletic scholarships for the sport.

All sports used the National Collegiate format until 1957, when the NCAA was split into the University Division and College Division (which itself was split into Divisions II and III in 1973).[4] The only sport that immediately saw a change after the 1957 split was basketball; all other sports continued to use the National Collegiate format for at least one season, and usually many more. Some sports that began after the split once used the format and no longer do. This include men's and women's lacrosse, women's rowing, women's soccer, and men's and women's indoor track & field.

Some sports, including men's and women's golf, men's ice hockey, men's lacrosse, and men's and women's soccer used to have a combined championship between Divisions II and III, but these were known as a "Division II/III championship" in most cases. The NCAA considered these titles equivalent to a Division II title.[72] No sport currently uses this format.

Player eligibility

The NCAA requires all of its athletes to be amateurs. All incoming athletes must be certified as amateurs. To remain eligible, athletes must not sign contract with sports clubs, earn a salary playing a sport, try out for professional sports, or enter into agreements with agents.[73]

To participate in college athletics in their freshman year, the NCAA requires that students meet three criteria: having graduated from high school, be completing the minimum required academic courses, and having qualifying grade-point average (GPA).[74]

The 16 academic credits are four courses in English, two courses in math, two classes in social science, two in natural or physical science, and one additional course in English, math, natural or physical science, or another academic course such as a foreign language.[75]

To meet the Division I requirements for grade point average, the lowest possible high school GPA a student may have to be eligible with to play in their freshman year is a 2.30 (2.20 for Division II or III), but they are allowed to play beginning in their second year with a GPA of 2.00.[76]

As of the 2017–18 school year, a high school student may sign a letter of intent to enter and play football for a Division I or Division II college in either of two periods.[c] The first, introduced in 2017–18, is a three-day period in mid-December, coinciding with the first three days of the previously existing signing period for junior college players.[78] The second period, which before 2017 was the only one allowed for signings of high school players, starts on the first Wednesday in February.[79] In August 2011, the NCAA announced plans to raise academic requirements for postseason competition, including its two most prominent competitions, football's now-defunct Bowl Championship Series (replaced in 2014 by the College Football Playoff) and the Division I men's basketball tournament; the new requirement, which are based on an "Academic Progress Rate" (APR) that measures retention and graduation rates, and is calculated on a four-year, rolling basis.[80] The changes raise the rate from 900 to 930, which represents a 50% graduation rate.[80]

Student-athletes can accept prize money from tournaments or competitions if they do not exceed the total expenses from the event. For example, during high school, D1 tennis players may take up to $10,000 in total prize money. If the student surpassed the amount of $10,000 of prize money in a calendar year, they would lose eligibility.[81]

Students are generally allowed to compete athletically for four years. Athletes are allowed to sit out a year while still attending school but not lose a year of eligibility by redshirting. In other words, a student has five years from the time they begin college to play four seasons.

NCAA sponsored sports

The NCAA currently awards 90 national championships yearly – 46 women's, 41 men's, and 3 coed championships for fencing, rifle, and skiing. Sports sanctioned by the NCAA include the following: basketball, baseball (men), track and field, softball (women), football (men), cross country, field hockey (women), bowling (women), golf, fencing (coeducational), lacrosse, soccer, gymnastics, rowing (women), swimming and diving, beach volleyball (women), volleyball, ice hockey, water polo, rifle (coeducational), tennis, skiing (coeducational), and wrestling (men).

The newest sport to be officially sanctioned is beach volleyball, which held its first championship in spring 2016.[82] The NCAA had called the sport "sand volleyball" until June 23, 2015, when it announced that it would use the internationally recognized name of "beach volleyball".[83]

The Football Bowl Subdivision of Division I determines its own champion separately from the NCAA via the College Football Playoff; this is not an official NCAA championship (see below).

The NCAA awards championships in the sports listed below. For the three coeducational championships, women's dates reflect the first championship that was open to women.

NCAA sports
Division I (M) Division II (M) Division III (M) Sport Division I (W) Division II (W) Division III (W)
1947– 1968– 1976– Baseball
1939– 1957– 1975– Basketball 1982– 1982– 1982–
Bowling 2004–
1938– 1958– 1973– Cross country 1981– 1981– 1981–
1941– Fencing[d] 1982–
Field hockey 1981– 1981– 1981–
1978– (FCS) 1973– 1973– Football
1939– 1963– 1975– Golf 1982– 1996–99; 2000– 1996–99; 2000–
1938– 1968–84 Gymnastics 1982– 1982–86
1948– 1978–84; 1993–99 1984– Ice hockey 2001– 2002–
1971– 1974–79; 1980–81; 1993– 1974–79; 1980– Lacrosse 1982– 2001– 1985–
1980– Rifle[e] 1980–[f]
Rowing 1997– 2002– 2002–
1954– Skiing[g] 1983–
1954– 1972– 1974– Soccer 1982 1988– 1986–
Softball 1982– 1982– 1982–
1924– 1964– 1975– Swimming & Diving 1982– 1982– 1982–
1946– 1963– 1976– Tennis 1982– 1982– 1982–
1965– 1985– 1985– Track & field (indoor) 1983– 1985; 1987– 1985; 1987–
1921– 1963– 1974– Track & field (outdoor) 1982– 1982– 1982–
1970– 2012– Volleyball (indoor) 1981– 1981– 1981–
Volleyball (beach) 2016–
1969– Water polo 2001–
1928– 1963– 1974– Wrestling
  • In addition to the sports above, the NCAA sanctioned a boxing championship from 1932 to 1960. The NCAA discontinued boxing following declines in the sport during the 1950s and following the death of a boxer at the 1960 NCAA tournament.
  • The NCAA also formerly sanctioned a trampoline championship. Prior to 1969, it was one of the events in the men's gymnastics championship, but it was given its own championship in 1969 and 1970 before being dropped completely.[84]

The number of teams (school programs) that compete in each sport in their respective division as of the 2021–22 academic year are as follows:[85]

Men's programs

Sport Division I Division II Division III
Baseball 293 257 391
Basketball 350 306 422
Cross Country 315 277 397
Fencing[note 1] 20 2 11
Football 253 169 242
Golf 292 214 297
Gymnastics 12 0 1
Ice Hockey 57 8 84
Lacrosse 72 75 247
Rifle[note 1] 17 2 2
Skiing[note 1] 10 6 16
Soccer 202 205 417
Swimming and Diving 130 77 241
Tennis 233 152 311
Track and Field (Indoor) 264 182 302
Track and Field (Outdoor) 287 227 331
Volleyball 25 32 113
Water Polo 25 9 16
Wrestling 76 67 116

Women's programs

Sport Division I Division II Division III
Basketball 348 306 435
Beach Volleyball 62 17 6
Bowling 34 34 23
Cross Country 347 297 417
Fencing[note 1] 27 2 15
Field Hockey 77 36 169
Golf 262 198 236
Gymnastics 61 5 15
Ice Hockey 34 6 72
Lacrosse 119 113 290
Rifle[note 1] 22 2 2
Rowing 87 15 44
Skiing[note 1] 10 7 15
Soccer 335 262 435
Softball 293 284 408
Swimming and Diving 190 104 269
Tennis 300 209 350
Track and Field (Indoor) 331 206 307
Track and Field (Outdoor) 339 258 342
Volleyball 332 296 430
Water Polo 34 12 19


  1. ^ a b c d e f Coed Championship sport

Emerging sports for women

In addition to the above sports, the NCAA recognizes Emerging Sports for Women. These sports have scholarship limitations for each sport, but do not currently have officially sanctioned NCAA championships. A member institution may use these sports to meet the required level of sports sponsorship for its division. An "Emerging Sport" must gain championship status (minimum 40 varsity programs for team sports, except 28 for Division III) within 10 years, or show steady progress toward that goal to remain on the list.[86] Until then, it is under the auspices of the NCAA and its respective institutions. Emerging Sport status allows for competition to include club teams to satisfy the minimum number of competitions bylaw established by the NCAA.

The six sports currently designated as Emerging Sports for Women are:

Sports added and dropped

The popularity of each of these sports programs has changed over time. Between 1988–89 and 2010–11, NCAA schools had net additions of 510 men's teams and 2,703 women's teams.[87]

The following tables show the changes over time in the number of NCAA schools across all three divisions combined sponsoring each of the men's and women's team sports.

Men's sports

The men's sports with the biggest net gains during the 1988/89 to 2010/11 period were indoor track and field, lacrosse, and cross country (each with more than 100 net gains). The men's sports with the biggest losses were wrestling (−104 teams), tennis, and rifle; the men's team sport with the most net losses was water polo.[87] Other reports show that 355 college wrestling programs have been eliminated since 2000; 212 men's gymnastics programs have been eliminated since 1969 with only 17 programs remaining as of 2013.[88]

Additionally, eight NCAA sports—all men's sports—were sponsored by fewer Division I schools in 2020 than in 1990, despite the D-I membership having increased by nearly 60 schools during that period. Four of these sports, namely wrestling, swimming & diving, gymnastics, and tennis, lost more than 20 net teams during that timeframe. As a proportion of D-I membership, men's tennis took the greatest hit; 71.5% of D-I members had men's tennis in 2020, compared to 93.2% in 1990.[89]

Men's Team Sports:
Number of Schools Sponsoring[90][91]
No. Sport 1981–82 2021–22 Change Percent
1 Basketball 741 1,077 +336 +45%
2 Baseball 642 943 +301 +47%
3 Soccer 521 826 +305 +59%
4 Football 497 666 +169 +34%
5 Lacrosse 138 395 +257 +186%
6 Volleyball 63 173 +110 +175%
7 Ice hockey 130 151 +22 +17%
8 Water polo 49 51 +2 +4%

The following table lists the men's individual DI sports with at least 5,000 participating athletes. Sports are ranked by number of athletes.

Men's individual sports:
Number of Schools Sponsoring
No. Sport 1981-82[91] 2021-22[91] Change Percent Athletes[91]
1 Track (outdoor) 577 864 +287 +50% 31,278
2 Track (indoor) 422 772 +350 +83% 28,537
3 Cross country 650 992 +342 +53% 14,787
4 Swimming & diving 377 449 +72 +19% 9,945
5 Golf 590 809 +219 +37% 8,602
6 Wrestling 363 267 -96 -26% 8,309
7 Tennis 690 701 +11 +1% 7,549
8 Gymnastics 79 15 -64 -81% 304

Women's sports

The women's sports with the biggest net gains during the 1988–89 to 2010–11 period were soccer (+599 teams), golf, and indoor track and field; no women's sports programs experienced double-digit net losses.[87]

Women's Team Sports:
Number of Schools Sponsoring[91]
No. Sport 1981–82 2022–23 Change Percent
1 Basketball 705 1,087 +382 +54%
2 Volleyball 603 1,058 +455 +75%
3 Soccer 80 1,035 +955 +1193%
4 Softball 348 986 +638 +183%
5 Lacrosse 105 522 +271 +258%
6 Field hockey 268 286 +18 +7%
7 Rowing 17 146 +129 +759%
8 Ice hockey 17 113 +96 +564%
9 Bowling 5* 99 +94 +1880%
10 Beach volleyball 14* 91 +77 +550%
11 Water polo 46* 66 +20 +43%
12 Acrobatics and tumbling 27* 37 +10 +37%
13 Triathlon 4* 34 +30 +750%
14 Rugby 2* 29 +27 +1350%
15 Stunt 2* 2 - -
  • Acrobatics and tumbling was not a women's varsity sport in 1982 and the NCAA report does not include the number of teams for that year. Bowling is first listed in the NCAA report in 2020–21 with 27 teams, and so the number of teams for that season is listed in the table above.
  • Bowling was not a women's varsity sport in 1982 and the NCAA report does not include the number of teams for that year. Bowling is first listed in the NCAA report in 1998–99 with 5 teams, and so the number of teams for that season is listed in the table above.
  • Beach volleyball was not a women's varsity sport in 1982 and the NCAA report does not include the number of teams for that year. Beach volleyball is first listed in the NCAA report in 2011–12 with 14 teams, and so the number of teams for that season is listed in the table above.
  • Rugby was not a women's varsity sport in 1982 and the NCAA report does not include the number of teams for that year. Bowling is first listed in the NCAA report in 2002–03 with 2 teams, and so the number of teams for that season is listed in the table above.
  • Stunt was not a women's varsity sport in 1982 and the NCAA report does not include the number of teams for that year. Water polo is first listed in the NCAA report in 2022–23 with 2 teams, and so the number of teams for that season is listed in the table above.
  • Triathlon was not a women's varsity sport in 1982 and the NCAA report does not include the number of teams for that year. Bowling is first listed in the NCAA report in 2015–16 with 4 teams, and so the number of teams for that season is listed in the table above.
  • Water polo was not a women's varsity sport in 1982 and the NCAA report does not include the number of teams for that year. Water polo is first listed in the NCAA report in 2000–01 with 46 teams, and so the number of teams for that season is listed in the table above.

The following table lists the women's individual NCAA sports with at least 1,000 participating athletes. Sports are ranked by number of athletes.

Women's individual sports
No. Sport 1981-82[91] 2021-22[91] Change Percent Athletes[91]
1 Track (outdoor) 427 957 +530 +124% 31,475
2 Track (indoor) 239 870 +631 +264% 29,391
3 Cross country 417 1,056 +639 +153% 14,621
4 Swimming & diving 348 560 +212 +61% 13,259
5 Tennis 610 858 +248 +41% 8,343
6 Golf 125 704 +579 +463% 5,733
7 Gymnastics 179 83 -96 -54% 1,715
8 Equestrian 41* 48 +7 +17% 1,443
9 Wrestling 4* 51 +47 +1175% 769
  • Equestrian was not a women's varsity sport in 1982 and the NCAA report does not include the number of teams for that year. Equestrian is first listed in the NCAA report in 1988–89 with 41 teams, and so the number of teams for that season is listed in the table above.
  • Wrestling was not a women's varsity sport in 1982 and the NCAA report does not include the number of teams for that year. Equestrian is first listed in the NCAA report in 2016–17 with 4 teams, and so the number of teams for that season is listed in the table above.


2006 NCAA championship banners hang from the ceiling of the NCAA Hall of Champions in Indianapolis
NCAA national championship trophies, rings, and watches won by UCLA teams


For every NCAA sanctioned sport other than Division I FBS football, the NCAA awards trophies with gold, silver, and bronze plating for the first-, second-, and third-place teams respectively.[citation needed] In the case of the NCAA basketball tournaments, both semifinalists who did not make the championship game receive bronze plated trophies for third place (prior to 1982 the teams played a "consolation" game to determine third place).[citation needed] Similar trophies are awarded to both semifinalists in the NCAA football tournaments (which are conducted in Division I FCS and both lower divisions), which have never had a third-place game. Winning teams maintain permanent possession of these trophies unless it is later found that they were won via serious rules violations.

Starting with the 2001–02 season, and again in the 2007–08 season, the trophies were changed.[citation needed] Starting in the 2006 basketball season, teams that make the Final Four in the Division I tournament receive bronze-plated "regional championship" trophies upon winning their Regional Championship which state the region they won and have the Final Four logo. The teams that make the National Championship game receive an additional trophy that is gold-plated for the winner. Starting in the mid-1990s, the National Champions in men's and women's basketball receive an elaborate trophy with a black marble base and crystal "neck" with a removable crystal basketball following the presentation of the standard NCAA Championship trophy.

As of May 30, 2022,[92] Stanford, UCLA, and Southern California (USC) have the most NCAA championships. Stanford has won 131 and UCLA has won 119 NCAA team championships in men's and women's sports, while USC is third with 111.

Football Bowl Subdivision

The NCAA has never sanctioned an official championship for its highest level of football, now known as Division I FBS. Instead, several outside bodies award their own titles. The NCAA does not hold a championship tournament or game for Division I FBS football. In the past, teams that placed first in any of a number of season-ending media polls, most notable the AP Poll of writers and the Coaches Poll, were said to have won the "national championship".

From 2014 through 2023, the College Football Playoff – a consortium of the conferences and independent schools that compete in Division I FBS and six bowl games – has arranged to place the top four teams (based on a thirteen-member committee that selects and seeds the teams) into two semifinal games, with the winners advancing to compete in the College Football Playoff National Championship, which is not officially sanctioned or recognized by the NCAA. The winner of the game receives a trophy; since the NCAA awards no national championship for Division I FBS football, this trophy does not denote NCAA as other NCAA college sports national championship trophies do. The playoff will expand to 12 teams starting in 2024.


The NCAA is divided into three levels of conferences, Division I, Division II, and Division III, organized in declining program size, as well as numerous sub-divisions. Most schools belong to a primary "multisport conference" for most of their sports. Schools may belong to different conferences for different sports.

The Division I, Division II, and Division III "Independents" listed below are not conferences per se; it is a designation used for schools that do not belong to a conference for a particular sport. These schools may still have conference memberships for other sports. For example, Notre Dame primarily belongs to the Atlantic Coast Conference for most sports, but its ice hockey team competes in the Big Ten Conference and its football team is an independent.

Division I

Among the NCAA regulations, each Division I conference defined as a "multisport conference" must have at least seven active Division I member institutions. These conferences must sponsor at least 12 sports, including six sports for men and six for women. At least seven active members in a multisport conference must sponsor both men's and women's basketball. However, a conference may operate for up to 2 years with fewer active members under a hardship rule. For non-football conferences, they must sponsor at least two men's team sports other than basketball. Teams that consist of both men and women are counted as men's teams for sports sponsorship purposes.[93]

For all institutions in the Division I Football Bowl Subdivision, they have additional requirements. Among them, they must participate in conference play in at least six men's and eight women's sports, including football, men's and women's basketball, and at least two other women's team sports.[94][95] In 2023, the NCAA added new requirements for FBS membership, set to take effect in 2027–28. At that time, FBS institutions must fund the equivalent of 210 full scholarships across all of their NCAA sports; must spend at least $6 million annually on said scholarships; and must provide at least 90% of the required number of full scholarships across 16 sports (as chosen by the institution), including football.[96]

  • FBS conferences in football are denoted with an asterisk (*)
  • FCS conferences in football are denoted with two asterisks (**)
  • Conferences that do not sponsor football or basketball are in italics

Division I FCS football-only conferences

Map of NCAA Division I FCS schools

Division I hockey-only conferences

Division I ice hockey has a different conference structure than the above multisport conferences. These schools have memberships in other conferences for other sports.

Men only
Women only
Men and women

Division II

Among the NCAA regulations, Division II institutions must sponsor at least five sports for men and five for women (or four for men and six for women), with two team sports for each sex, and each playing season represented by each sex. Teams that consist of both men and women are counted as men's teams for sports sponsorship purposes.[97]

Division III

Unlike the other two divisions, Division III institutions cannot offer athletic scholarships. Among the other NCAA Division III requirements, all institutions, regardless of enrollment, must sponsor at least three team sports for each sex/gender, and each playing season represented by each sex/gender.[98] Furthermore, a sports sponsorship rule unique to Division III is that the total number of sports that must be sponsored differs by a school's full-time undergraduate enrollment: schools with an enrollment of 1,000 or fewer must sponsor at least five sports for men and five for women; those with larger enrollments must sponsor six men's and six women's sports. As in the other divisions, teams that include both men and women are treated as men's sports for the purpose of these regulations.[99]

Division III football-only conferences

Division III ice hockey-only conferences

Division III lacrosse-only conferences

Division III men's volleyball-only conferences


The NCAA has current media rights contracts with CBS Sports, CBS Sports Network, ESPN, ESPN+, TNT Sports and Golf Channel for coverage of its 88 championships. According to the official NCAA website,[100] ESPN and its associated networks have rights to 21 championships, CBS to 65, TNT Sports to one and NBC's Golf Channel to two. The following are the most prominent championships and rights holders until the 2023–24 season:

  • CBS: Men's basketball (NCAA Division I men's basketball tournament, with TNT Sports, and NCAA Division II men's basketball tournament), track and field, ice hockey (women's division I), golf (Divisions II and III, both genders)
  • ESPN: Women's basketball (all divisions), baseball, softball, ice hockey (men's Division I), football (all divisions including Div. I FCS), soccer (Division I for both genders)
  • TNT Sports: NCAA Division I men's basketball tournament with CBS
  • NBC and Golf Channel: golf (Division I, both genders)

Westwood One has exclusive radio rights to the men's and women's basketball Final Fours and the Men's College World Series (baseball).

From 1998 to 2013, Electronic Arts had a license to develop college sports video games with the NCAA's branding, which included its NCAA Football, NCAA Basketball (formerly NCAA March Madness) and MVP Baseball series. The NCAA's licensing was not required to produce the games, as rights to use teams are not licensed through the NCAA, but through entities such as individual schools and the Collegiate Licensing Company. EA only acquired the license so that it could officially incorporate the Division I men's basketball tournament into its college basketball game series. The NCAA withdrew EA's license due to uncertainties surrounding a series of lawsuits, most notably O'Bannon v. NCAA, involving the use of player likenesses in college sports video games.[101][102]

Office of Inclusion

Inclusion and Diversity Campaign

The week-long program took place October 1–5, 2018. The aim was to utilize social media platforms in order to promote diversity and inclusion within intercollegiate athletics. Throughout the NCAA's history, there has been controversy as to the levels of diversity present within intercollegiate athletics, and this campaign is the NCAA's most straightforward approach to combatting these issues.[52]

NCAA Inclusion Statement

As a core value, the NCAA believes in and is committed to diversity, inclusion and gender equity among its student-athletes, coaches and administrators. It seeks to establish and maintain an inclusive culture that fosters equitable participation for student-athletes and career opportunities for coaches and administrators from diverse backgrounds. Diversity and inclusion improve the learning environment for all student-athletes and enhance excellence within the Association.[52]

The Office of Inclusion will provide or enable programming and education, which sustains foundations of a diverse and inclusive culture across dimensions of diversity including but not limited to age, race, sex, class, national origin, creed, educational background, religion, gender identity, disability, gender expression, geographical location, income, marital status, parental status, sexual orientation and work experiences.

This statement was adopted by the NCAA Executive Committee in April 2010, and amended by the NCAA Board of Governors in April 2017.[52]

Gender equity and Title IX

While no concrete criteria are given as to a state of gender equity on campuses, an athletics program is considered gender equitable when both women's and men's sports programs reach a consensus.[103]

The basis of Title IX, when amended in 1972 to the 1964 Civil Rights Act, criminalized discrimination on the basis of sex.[104] This plays into intercollegiate athletics in that it helps to maintain gender equity and inclusion in intercollegiate athletics. The NCAA provides many resources to provide information and enforce this amendment.

The NCAA has kept these core values central to its decisions regarding the allocation of championship bids. In April 2016, the Board of Governors announced new requirements for host cities that include protection against discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity for all people involved in the event. This decision was prompted by several states passing laws that permit discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity in accordance with religious beliefs.[105]


The LGBTQ community has been under scrutiny and controversy in the public eye of collegiate athletics, but the NCAA has gradually liberalised its policy on them. The NCAA provides many resources concerning the education of the college community on this topic and policies in order to foster diversity.[106] Title IX protects the transgender community within intercollegiate athletics and on college campuses.

On January 19, 2022, the NCAA approved a new policy for transgender athletes, effective immediately, and this replaced their previous policy, which was in place since 2011.[107] Now, the participation of transgender athletes in a particular sport is generally to be governed by the rules of the sport's national governing body, international federation policy, or International Olympic Committee policy criteria (though an NCAA committee may provide its own recommendation).[108] This action prompted immediate critique from LGBTQ advocates, including Athlete Ally and former NCAA LGBTQ OneTeam facilitator Rhea Debussy.[109][110]

Previously, the NCAA used testosterone levels to qualify transgender athletes for participation. A transgender male student-athlete was not allowed to compete on a male sports team unless they had undergone medical treatment of testosterone for gender transition, and a transgender female student-athlete was not allowed to compete on a women's sports team until completing one calendar year of testosterone suppression treatment. Under this policy, transgender males were ineligible to compete on a women's team, and transgender females were ineligible to compete on a men's team, without changing the team's status to be a mixed team.[111] In December 2021, John Lohn, the editor-in-chief of Swimming World, criticised NCAA policy; writing about transgender swimmer Lia Thomas, he argued that the "one-year suppressant requirement is not nearly stringent enough to create a level playing field between Thomas and the biological females against whom she is racing".[112]

In 2010, the NCAA Executive Committee announced its support and commitment to diversity, inclusion, and gender equality among its student-athletes, coaches, and administrators. The statement included the NCAA's commitment to ensuring that all students have equal opportunities to achieve their academic goals, and coaches and administrators have equal opportunities for career development in a climate of respect.[106] In 2012, the LGBTQ Subcommittee of the NCAA association-wide Committee on Women's Athletics and the Minority Opportunities and Interests Committee commissioned Champions of Respect, a document that provides resources and advocacy that promotes inclusion and equality for LGBTQ student-athletes, coaches, administrators and all others associated with intercollegiate athletics. This resource uses guides from the Women's Sports Foundation It Takes a Team! project for addressing issues related to LGBTQ equality in intercollegiate athletics.[113] The document provides information on specific issues LGBTQ sportspeople face, similarities and differences of these issues on women's and men's teams, policy recommendations and best practices, and legal resources and court cases.[114]

The NCAA expressed concern over Indiana's Religious Freedom Restoration Act that allows businesses to discriminate against people based on their sexual orientation. This bill was proposed just before Indianapolis was set to host the 2015 Men's Basketball Final Four tournament.[115] The bill clashed with the NCAA core values of inclusion and equality, and forced the NCAA to consider moving events out of Indiana. Under pressure from across the nation and fearing the economic loss of being banned from hosting NCAA events, the governor of Indiana, Mike Pence, revised the bill so that businesses could not discriminate based on sexual orientation, race, religion, or disability. The NCAA accepted the revised bill and continues to host events in Indiana.[116] The bill was enacted into law on July 1, 2015.[116]

On September 12, 2016, the NCAA announced that it would pull all seven planned championship events out of North Carolina for the 2016–2017 academic year.[117] This decision was a response to the state passing the Public Facilities Privacy and Security Act (H.B. 2) on March 23, 2016. This law requires people to use public restrooms that correspond with their sex assigned at birth and stops cities from passing laws that protect against discrimination towards gay and transgender people.[citation needed] The NCAA Board of Governors determined that this law would make ensuring an inclusive atmosphere in the host communities challenging, and relocating these championship events best reflects the association's commitment to maintaining an environment that is consistent with its core values.[117] North Carolina has lost the opportunity to host the 2018 Final Four Tournament which was scheduled to be in Charlotte, but is relocated to San Antonio. If H.B. 2 is not repealed, North Carolina could be barred from bidding for events from 2019 to 2022.[118]

Race and ethnicity

Racial/Ethnic minority groups in the NCAA are protected by inclusion and diversity policies put in place to increase sensitivity and awareness to the issues and challenges faced across intercollegiate athletics. The NCAA provides a demographics database that can be openly viewed by the public.[52]

Historically, the NCAA has used its authority in deciding on host cities to promote its core values. The Association also prohibits championship events in states that display the Confederate flag, and at member schools that have abusive or offensive nicknames or mascots based on Native American imagery. Board members wish to ensure that anyone associated with an NCAA championship event will be treated with fairness and respect.[105]

Student-athletes with disabilities

The NCAA defines a disability as a current impairment that has a substantial educational impact on a student's academic performance and requires accommodation. Student-Athletes with disabilities are given education accommodations along with an adapted sports model. The NCAA hosts adapted sports championships for both track and field and swimming and diving as of 2015.[106]

International student athletes

Over the last two decades recruiting international athletes has become a growing trend among NCAA institutions. For example, most German athletes outside of Germany are based at US universities. For many European athletes, the American universities are the only option to pursue an academic and athletic career at the same time. Many of these students come to the US with high academic expectations and aspirations.[106]

College team name changes

As of 2018, there has been a continuation of changing school mascots that are said by some to be based on racist or offensive stereotypes. Universities under NCAA policy are under scrutiny for specifically Native American-inspired mascots. While many colleges have changed their mascots, some have gotten legal permission from the tribe represented and will continue to bear the mascot. This Native American mascot controversy has not been completely settled; however, many issues have been resolved.[119]

Here is a list of notable colleges that changed Native American mascots and/or nicknames in recent history:

  • Stanford – Indians to Cardinals (1972); became Cardinal in 1981
  • UMass – Redmen and Redwomen to Minutemen and Minutewomen (1972)
  • Dartmouth – Indians to Big Green (1974)
  • Siena – Indians to Saints (1988)
  • Eastern Michigan – Hurons to Eagles (1991)
  • St. Bonaventure - Brown Indians to Bonnies
  • St. John's (NY) – Redmen to Red Storm (1994)
  • Syracuse - Orangemen to Orange
  • Marquette – Warriors to Golden Eagles (1994)
  • Chattanooga – Moccasins to Mocs, suggestive of mockingbirds (1996)
  • Miami (OH) – Redskins to RedHawks (1997)
  • Seattle – Chieftains to Redhawks (2000)
  • Colgate – Red Raiders to Raiders (2001)
  • Quinnipiac – Braves to Bobcats (2002)
  • Southeast Missouri State – Indians (men) and Otahkians (women) to Redhawks (2005)
  • Louisiana–Monroe – Indians to Warhawks (2006)
  • Arkansas State – Indians to Red Wolves (2008)
  • North Dakota – Formally dropped Fighting Sioux in 2012; adopted Fighting Hawks in 2015[120]


  • Illinois – Removed Chief Illiniwek as official symbol in 2007. Athletics teams are still called Fighting Illini.
  • Bradley, Alcorn State – Both schools stopped using Native American mascots but have retained their Braves nickname.
  • William & Mary – Adjusted Tribe logo to remove feathers to comply with NCAA. Athletics teams are still called Tribe. (2007)
  • Chattanooga – removed the mascot, Chief Moccanooga and the Moccasin Shoe imagery in 1996; Kept the term, "Mocs", but reassigned its representation to the official State Bird.

Of note: Utah (Utes), Central Michigan (Chippewas), Florida State (Seminoles) and Mississippi College (Choctaws) all appealed successfully to the NCAA after being deemed "hostile and offensive." Each cited positive relationships with neighboring tribes in appeal. UNC Pembroke (Braves), an institution originally created to educate Native Americans and enjoying close ties to the local Lumbee tribe, was approved to continue the use of native-derived imagery without needing an appeal.

Rules violations

Member schools pledge to follow the rules promulgated by the NCAA. Creation of a mechanism to enforce the NCAA's legislation occurred in 1952 after careful consideration by the membership.

Allegations of rules violations are referred to the NCAA's enforcement staff, who monitor information about potential violations, investigate and process violations, provide notice of alleged violations, and bring cases before the NCAA's Committees on Infractions.[121] A preliminary investigation is initiated to determine if an official inquiry is warranted and to categorize any resultant violations as secondary or major. If several violations are found, the NCAA may determine that the school as a whole has exhibited a "lack of institutional control." The institution involved is notified promptly and may appear on its own behalf before the NCAA Committee on Infractions.

Findings of the Committee on Infractions and the resultant sanctions in major cases are reported to the institution. Sanctions will generally include having the institution placed on "probation" for a period of time, in addition to other penalties. The institution may appeal the findings or sanctions to an appeals committee. After considering written reports and oral presentations by representatives of the Committee on Infractions and the institution, the committee acts on the appeal. Action may include accepting the infractions committee's findings and penalty, altering either, or making its own findings and imposing an appropriate penalty.[121]

In cases of particularly egregious misconduct, the NCAA has the power to ban a school from participating in a particular sport, a penalty known as the "Death Penalty". Since 1985, any school that commits major violations during the probationary period can be banned from the sport involved for up to two years. However, when the NCAA opts not to issue a death penalty for a repeat violation, it must explain why it did not do so. This penalty has only been imposed three times in its modern form, most notably when Southern Methodist University's (SMU) football team had its 1987 season canceled due to massive rules violations dating back more than a decade. SMU opted not to field a team in 1988 as well due to the aftershocks from the sanctions, and the program has never recovered. The Mustangs did not post a winning season until 1997, did not appear in their next bowl game until 2009, did not post consecutive winning seasons until 2011 and 2012, did not return to the national rankings until 2019, and did not win a conference title again until 2023. The devastating effect the death penalty had on SMU has reportedly made the NCAA skittish about issuing another one. Since the SMU case, there are only three instances where the NCAA has seriously considered imposing it against a Division I school; it imposed it against Division II Morehouse College's men's soccer team in 2003 and Division III MacMurray College's men's tennis team in 2005. In addition to these cases, the most recent Division I school to be considered was Penn State. This was because of the Jerry Sandusky Incident that consequently almost landed Penn State on the hook for the death penalty. They received a $60 million fine, in addition to forfeited seasons and other sanctions as well. The NCAA later reversed itself by restoring all forfeited seasons and overturning the remaining sanctions.

Additionally, in particularly egregious cases of rules violations, coaches, athletic directors, and athletic support staff can be barred from working for any NCAA member school without permission from the NCAA. This procedure is known as a "show-cause penalty" (not to be confused with an order to show cause in the legal sense).[122] Theoretically, a school can hire someone with a "show cause" on their record during the time the show cause order is in effect only with permission from the NCAA Infractions Committee. The school assumes the risks and stigma of hiring such a person. It may then end up being sanctioned by the NCAA and the Infractions Committee for their choice, possibly losing athletic scholarships, revenue from schools who would not want to compete with that other school, and the ability for their games to be televised, along with restrictions on recruitment and practicing times. As a result, a show-cause order essentially has the effect of blackballing individuals from being hired for the duration of the order.

One of the most famous scandals in NCAA history involved Heisman Trophy-winning quarterback Cam Newton of the Auburn Tigers in 2011. As a direct effect of not being compensated for his college athletics, Cam Newton's family allegedly sought upwards of $100,000 for him to instead play at Mississippi State. This was revealed days before the conference SEC championship game; however, Cam Newton was later reinstated as there was insufficient evidence against him.[123]


The NCAA has a two-tier sponsorship division. AT&T, Coca-Cola, and Capital One are NCAA Corporate Champions, all others are NCAA Corporate Partners.[124]

Company Category Since
Buffalo Wild Wings Bar and restaurant 2015
AT&T Telecommunications 2001
Coca-Cola Non-alcoholic beverages 2002
GEICO Insurance 2018
Capital One Banking and credit cards 2008
Nabisco (Ritz and Oreo) Snack foods 2017
Hershey's (Reese's) Confections 2009
Nissan (Infiniti) Car & parts 2010
Wendy's Fast-food restaurant 2016
Pizza Hut Restaurant 2016
General Motors (Buick) Car and parts 2013
Marriott Hotels and hospitality 2017
Invesco QQQ Financial services 2021
Intuit Turbotax Tax preparation 2022
Aflac Insurance 2021
Great Clips Hair Salon 2020
LG Consumer electronics 2021


As a governing body for amateur sports the NCAA is classified as a tax-exempt not-for-profit organization.[125] As such, it is not required to pay most taxes on income that for-profit private and public corporations are subject to. The NCAA's business model of prohibiting salaries for collegial athletes has been challenged in court, but a 2015 case was struck down.[126] As of 2014 the NCAA reported that it had over $600 million in unrestricted net assets in its annual report.[127] During 2014 the NCAA also reported almost a billion dollars of revenue, contributing to a "budget surplus" – revenues in excess of disbursements for that year – of over $80 million.[127] Over $700 million of that revenue total was from licensing TV rights to its sporting events.[127] In addition, the NCAA also earns money through investment growth of its endowment fund. Established in 2004 with $45 million, the fund has grown to over $380 million in 2014.[128]

NCAA expenditures

According to the NCAA, it receives most of its annual revenue from two sources: Division I Men's Basketball television and marketing rights, and championships ticket sales. According to the NCAA, "that money is distributed in more than a dozen ways – almost all of which directly support NCAA schools, conferences and nearly half a million student-athletes."[129]

In 2017 total NCAA revenues were in excess of $1.06 billion.[130] Division I basketball television and marketing rights generated $821.4 million, and "championships ticket sales" totaled $129.4 million. Other "smaller streams of revenue, such as membership dues" contributed an unspecified amount.[129]

Expenses by category

The NCAA provided a breakdown of how those revenues were in turn spent, organizing pay-outs and expenses into some 14 basic categories. By far the largest went to Sports Scholarship and Sponsorship Funds, funding for sports and student scholarships under the Division I Basketball Performance Fund, expenses incurred in producing Division I Championships (including team food, travel, and lodging), the Student Assistance Fund, and Student Athlete Services. Together these top five recipients accounted for 65% of all NCAA expenditures. General and Administrative expenses for running the NCAA day-to-day operations totaled approximately 4% of monies paid out, and other association-wide expenses, including legal services, communications, and business insurance totaled 8%.[129]

The categories:

  • $210.8M Sport Sponsorship and Scholarship Funds
Distributed to Division I schools to help fund NCAA sports and provide scholarships for college athletes.
  • $160.5M Division I Basketball Performance Fund
Distributed to Division I conferences and independent schools based on their performance in the men's basketball tournament over a six-year rolling period. The money is used to fund NCAA sports and provide scholarships for college athletes.
  • $96.7M Division I Championships
Provides college athletes the opportunity to compete for a championship and includes support for team travel, food, and lodging.
  • $82.2M Student Assistance Fund
Distributed to Division I student-athletes for essential needs that arise during their time in college.
  • $71.8M Student-Athlete Services
Includes funding for catastrophic injury insurance, drug testing, student-athlete leadership programs, postgraduate scholarships, and additional Association-wide championships support.
  • $50.3M Division I Equal Conference Fund
Distributed equally among Division I basketball-playing conferences that meet athletic and academic standards to play in the men's basketball tournament. The money is used to fund NCAA sports and provide scholarships for college athletes.
  • $46.7M Academic Enhancement Fund
Distributed to Division I schools to assist with academic programs and services.
  • $42.3M Division II Allocation
Funds championships, grants, and other initiatives for Division II college athletes.
  • $39.6M Membership Support Services
Covers costs related to NCAA governance committees and the annual NCAA Convention.
  • $28.2M Division III Allocation
Funds championships, grants, and other initiatives for Division III college athletes.
  • $9.5M Division I Conference Grants
Distributed to Division I conferences for programs that enhance officiating, compliance, minority opportunities, and more.
  • $3.3M Educational Programs
Supports various educational services for members to help prepare student-athletes for life, including the Women Coaches Academy, the Emerging Leaders Seminars, and the Pathway Program.
  • $74.3M Other Association-Wide Expenses
Includes support for Association-wide legal services, communications, and business insurance.
  • $39.7M General and Administrative Expenses
Funds the day-to-day operations of the NCAA national office, including administrative and financial services, information technology, and facilities management.

According to the NCAA, the 2017 fiscal year was the first in which its revenues topped $1.0 billion. The increase in revenue from 2016 came from hikes in television and marketing fees, plus greater monies generated from championship events and investment income.[130]

An ESPN critique of the organization's 2017 financials indicated some $560.3 million of the total $956 million paid out went back to its roughly 1,100 member institutions in 24 sports in all three divisions, as well as $200 million for a one-time payment the NCAA made to schools to fund additional programs.[131]

The Division I basketball tournament alone generated some $761 million, with another $60 million in 2016–17 marketing rights. With increases in rights fees it is estimated the basketball tournament will generate some $869 million for the 2018 championship.[131]

Player compensation proposals

The NCAA has limited the amount of compensation that individual players can receive to scholarships equal to school tuition and related expenses. This rule has generated controversy, in light of the large amounts of revenues that schools earn from sports from TV contracts, ticket sales, and licensing and merchandise. Several commentators have discussed whether the NCAA limit on player compensation violates antitrust laws. There is a consensus among economists that the NCAA's compensation caps for men's basketball and football players benefit the athletes' schools (through rent-seeking) at the expense of the athletes.[6] Economists have subsequently characterized the NCAA as a cartel and collusive monopsony.[9][11][10][132][133]

Pro-rating payouts to Division I basketball players in proportion to the size of revenues its championship tournament generates relative to the NCAA's total annual revenues would be one possible approach, but will open the door to litigation by students and schools adversely affected by such a formula.

According to a national study by the National College Players Association (NCPA) and the Drexel University Sport Management Department, the average FBS "full" athletic scholarship falls short of the full cost of attending each school by an average of $3285 during 2011–12 school year, and leaves the vast majority of full scholarship players living below the federal poverty line. [134]

In 2020, the NCAA Board of Governors announced that they supported rule changes that would permit players to receive athletics-related endorsements from third-parties.[135] All divisions were expected to adopt new rules relating to the use of players' names, images, and likenesses before the 2021–2022 academic year begins.

On May 6, 2021, Governor Brian Kemp signed Bill 617 into law, giving collegiate athletes the ability to profit off their Name, Image and Likeness. The University of Georgia have said they will immediately compensate their student athletes, while Georgia Tech and Georgia State University have not set anything yet.[136]

On June 21, 2021, the U.S. Supreme Court held unanimously in National Collegiate Athletic Association v. Alston that the NCAA's restrictions on education-related payments were unlawfully in violation of Sherman Act's anti-trust and trade regulations.[137][138] Though this holding did not address restrictions on direct compensation payment to athletes, it also opened the door for the possibly of future court cases concerning this matter.[139][137]

The NCAA announced on July 1, 2021, that as a result of O'Bannon and numerous state laws giving college players the ability to manage their publicity, the board had agreed to new rules that removed restrictions on college athletes from entering paid endorsements and other sponsorship deals, and from using agents to manage their publicity. Students would still be required to inform the school of all such activities, with the school to make determinations if those activities violate state and local laws.[140]

On the first day of effect for the NIL rule change (July 1), athletes such as D'Eriq King (Miami (FL) quarterback), Justyn Ross (Clemson wide receiver), Bo Nix (Auburn quarterback), Antwan Owen (Jackson State defensive end), McKenzie Milton (Florida State quarterback), Malik Cunningham (Louisville quarterback), Michael Penix Jr. (Indiana quarterback), Spencer Rattler (Oklahoma quarterback), Lexi Sun (Nebraska volleyball), Paige Bueckers (UConn basketball) and twins Haley & Hanna Cavinder (Fresno State basketball), all signed deals and/or unveiled trademarks to profit off of their names, images, and likenesses. As of day one, LSU gymnast Olivia Dunne was projected to be the highest earning college athlete of 2021–22, out of both men's and women's sports.[141]

The new NIL agreement has given student athletes big time deals and opportunities to put themselves out there and gain profit using their name, image, and likeness. For example, Ga'Quincy McKinstry, a cornerback from Alabama known since childhood as "Kool-Aid", signed a deal with Kool-Aid. Not only can they partner up with companies, student athletes can get paid for other talents (i.e. singing).

Russell Steinberg in 2021 says, "In addition to his prowess on the football field, where he has a shot at tying the school record for most starts, Marshall's Will Ulmer is a talented musician who wasn't able to earn money using his own name — until now. He had been going by "Lucky Bill" to avoid running afoul of NCAA regulations, but now says he is ready to book shows using his real name" (Steinberg 2021).[142] The NIL has allowed Ulmer great opportunities to further pursue his football and musician career.

Some companies have partnered up with multiple athletes and created a team of their own. Degree, the deodorant brand, started a team of 14 student athletes to help promote their brand. Degree calls this team Breaking Limits. "The Unilever-owned antiperspirant brand has committed $5 million over the next five years to inspire people to break limits. The first group of athletes that Degree has selected represent a diverse range of backgrounds regarding race, gender, and sport, and their stories will be unveiled on Instagram. These athletes will also have the chance to participate in events to help their local communities" (Steinberg 2021).[142]

On May 23, 2024, the NCAA and its five power conferences agreed to allow schools to directly pay players for the first time in the 100-plus-year history of college sports.[143] The NCAA and its leagues announced their intention to enter into a multibillion-dollar agreement to settle three pending antitrust cases.[143] In doing so, the NCAA will pay more than $2.7 billion in damages over ten years to more than 10,000 past and current athletes.[143] It is anticipated that each player in the class will receive an annual check worth 10% of the money they are owed.[143] Additionally, the NCAA and its league are also set to enter into a revenue-sharing plan, which allows each member school to share up to roughly $20 million per year with its athletes.[143]

Individual awards

The NCAA presents a number of different individual awards,[145] including:

  • NCAA Award of Valor (not given every year); selection is based on the heroic action occurring during the academic year.
  • NCAA Gerald R. Ford Award, honoring an individual who has provided significant leadership as an advocate for intercollegiate athletics.
  • NCAA Inspiration Award (not given every year); selection is based on inspirational action.
  • NCAA Sportsmanship Award, honoring student-athletes who have demonstrated one or more of the ideals of sportsmanship.
  • NCAA Theodore Roosevelt Award, the highest honor that the NCAA can confer on an individual.
  • NCAA Woman of the Year Award, honoring a senior student-athlete who has distinguished herself throughout her collegiate career in academics, athletics, service, and leadership.
  • Elite 90 Award, honoring the student-athlete with the highest cumulative GPA who has reached the competition at the finals site for each of the NCAA's 90 men's and women's championships (in Divisions I, II, and III, plus "National Collegiate" championships open to schools from more than one division).
  • Silver Anniversary Awards, honoring six distinguished former student-athletes on the 25th anniversary of their college graduation.
  • The Flying Wedge Award, one of the NCAA's highest honors exemplifying outstanding leadership and service to the NCAA.
  • Today's Top 10 Award, honoring ten outstanding senior student-athletes.
  • Walter Byers Scholarship, honoring the top male and female scholar-athletes.

In previous years, the NCAA has presented the following awards at its NCAA Honors event: Astronaut Salute, Business Leader Salute, Congressional Medal of Honor Salute, Governor Salute, Olympians Salute, Performing Arts Salute, Presidents Cabinet Salute, Prominent National Media Salute, Special Recognition Awards, U.S. House of Representatives Salute, and U.S. Senate Salute.[146]

Other collegiate athletic organizations

The NCAA is the dominant, but not the only, collegiate athletic organization in the United States. Several other such collegiate athletic organizations exist.

In the United States

Foreign equivalents

International governing body

See also

  • Sports portal

Notes and references


  1. ^ As "Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States" (IAAUS), renamed "National Collegiate Athletic Association" in 1910.[1]
  2. ^ NCAA is commonly pronounced "N C double A" by the general public and in outside media reports, but generally pronounced one letter at a time, "N C A A", in the organization's official media. In its early decades, the pronunciation "N C two A" was also used – this variation is rarely used today.
  3. ^ The NCAA prohibits Division III members from using the National Letter of Intent program, or requiring that prospective athletes sign any pre-enrollment document that is not executed by other prospective students at that institution. The NCAA does allow the signing of a standard, non-binding celebratory form upon the student's acceptance of enrollment, but this signing cannot take place at the institution's campus, and staff members of that school cannot be present at the signing.[77]
  4. ^ Men and women compete together as team members in this sport today, but men's and women's championships were separate between 1982 and 1989. All individual bouts have always involved members of the same sex.
  5. ^ Men and women compete together in this sport as equals, making this the only NCAA sport in which men and women directly compete against one another..
  6. ^ Rifle was the only NCAA sport whose championship was open to women before the 1981–82 school year.
  7. ^ Men and women compete together as team members in this sport, but all races involve members of only one sex.
  8. ^ a b Most football-playing ASUN and WAC members play that sport in the United Athletic Conference, the successor to a football-only partnership that shared one automatic berth in the FCS playoffs. Due to an NCAA moratorium on new single-sport conferences, the UAC is not recognized as an NCAA conference, but rather as a continuation of that partnership.
  9. ^ a b Most football-playing Big South and OVC members play that sport in the Big South–OVC Football Association, a single-sport partnership with one automatic berth in the FCS playoffs.
  10. ^ Although the CAA football league is administered by the all-sports CAA, the two sides of the CAA are legally separate entities.
  11. ^ Men's volleyball is the conference's only remaining NCAA sport after it disbanded as an all-sports league at the end of the 2022–23 school year. The conference also operates in the non-NCAA esports.


  1. ^ a b c d e "About the NCAA History". NCAA. Archived from the original on August 7, 2011. Retrieved August 17, 2011. President Theodore Roosevelt summoned college athletics leaders to two White House conferences to encourage reforms. In early December 1905, Chancellor Henry M. MacCracken of New York University convened a meeting of 13 institutions to initiate changes in football playing rules. At a subsequent meeting on December 28 in New York City, 62 colleges and universities became charter members of the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States (IAAUS). The IAAUS officially was constituted March 31, 1906, and took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910.
  2. ^ "Simon Fraser University approved to join NCAA D II". October 7, 2009. Archived from the original on July 14, 2009. Retrieved November 6, 2009.
  3. ^ a b c "Overview". National Collegiate Athletic Association. Retrieved May 23, 2022.
  4. ^ a b c "NCAA Group Opens Talks On Money Aid To Players". Kingsport Times. August 20, 1956. p. 7 – via
  5. ^ "NCAA records nearly $1.3B in revenue for '22-23". February 2, 2024. Retrieved April 22, 2024.
  6. ^ a b "The NCAA". Retrieved April 3, 2018.
  7. ^ Sanderson, Allen R.; Siegfried, John J. (February 2015). "The Case for Paying College Athletes". Journal of Economic Perspectives. 29 (1): 115–138. doi:10.1257/jep.29.1.115.
  8. ^ Garthwaite, Craig; Keener, Jordan; Notowidigdo, Matthew J; Ozminkowski, Nicole F (October 2020). "Who Profits From Amateurism? Rent-Sharing in Modern College Sports". National Bureau of Economic Research. Working Paper Series. doi:10.3386/w27734.
  9. ^ a b Sanderson, Allen R.; Siegfried, John J. (March 1, 2018). "The National Collegiate Athletic Association Cartel: Why it Exists, How it Works, and What it Does". Review of Industrial Organization. 52 (2): 185–209. doi:10.1007/s11151-017-9590-z. ISSN 1573-7160. S2CID 86850372.
  10. ^ a b Blair, Roger D.; Whitman, Joseph (March 1, 2017). "The NCAA Cartel, Monopsonistic Restrictions, and Antitrust Policy". The Antitrust Bulletin. 62 (1): 3–14. doi:10.1177/0003603X16688836. ISSN 0003-603X. S2CID 157372084.
  11. ^ a b Humphreys, Brad R.; Ruseski, Jane E. (2009). "Monitoring Cartel Behavior and Stability: Evidence from NCAA Football". Southern Economic Journal. 75 (3): 720–735. doi:10.1002/j.2325-8012.2009.tb00928.x. ISSN 0038-4038. JSTOR 27751412. S2CID 44035483.
  12. ^ "High court rules against NCAA on compensation". June 21, 2021. Retrieved June 21, 2021.
  13. ^ Michael Whitmer (June 6, 2015). "Harvard and Yale crews celebrate the 150th Boat Race". The Boston Globe. Retrieved September 25, 2015.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g NCAA History between 1910 and 1980 Archived December 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ "The Sinful Seven: Sci-fi Western Legends of the NCAA". Retrieved August 3, 2020.
  16. ^ a b Bennett H. Beach and John L. Powers (January 17, 1970). "Soaking up the Press". The Harvard Crimson.
  17. ^ [1] "Protection of College Athletes. Hearings Before the Special Subcommittee on Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Third Congress; First Session on H.R. 5623 and H.R. 5624", March and April 1973.
  18. ^ "Remarks of AAU President John B. Kelly, Jr.," Ford Library Museum, November 1, 1972, Philadelphia, PA.
  19. ^ S. I. Staff (April 20, 1970). "19TH HOLE: THE READERS TAKE OVER". Sports Illustrated.
  20. ^ Lipsyte, Robert (January 24, 1970). "The Plot". The New York Times.
  21. ^ Nocera, Joe (December 25, 2015). "Jerry Tarkanian and Walter Byers: Adversaries Who Left Mark on N.C.A.A." The New York Times.
  22. ^ Sally Jenkins. "NCAA lost its teeth in court in 1984, and no one's been in charge since", The Washington Post, September 23, 2011.
  23. ^ Brian Goff (April 26, 2020). "NCAA World Evolving But Toward What?". Sports Economist.
  24. ^ "National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) | American organization". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved July 11, 2017.
  25. ^ Grundy, Pamela; Shackelford, Susan (2005). Shattering the Glass. The New Press. ISBN 978-1-56584-822-1.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Rose, Laurence M. "College Presidents and the NCAA Presidents ' Commission: All Bark and No Bite". University of Miami. Retrieved July 17, 2023.
  27. ^ "Origins". NCAA. Retrieved July 17, 2023.
  28. ^ a b c MOFFIT, DAVID (January 7, 1987). "The NCAA Presidents Commission, representing top executives of the nation's leading colleges". United Press International. UPI. Retrieved July 17, 2023.
  29. ^ "Graduation Rates Timeline". NCAA. Retrieved July 17, 2023.
  30. ^ "Division III Timeline". NCAA. Retrieved July 17, 2023.
  31. ^ Asher, Mark (January 14, 1986). "NCAA Approves Testing for Drugs". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 16, 2024.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  32. ^ "Timeline - 1990s". NCAA. Retrieved July 17, 2023.
  33. ^ "The More Things Change …". NCAA. Retrieved July 17, 2023.
  35. ^ a b Ginsburg, Ruth Bader (February 23, 1999). "NATIONAL COLLEGIATE ATHLETIC ASSN. v. SMITH". Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School. Retrieved July 13, 2013.
  36. ^ Benjamin Bendrich: Studentischer Spitzensport zwischen Resignation, Mythos und Aufbruch: eine Studie zur dualen Karriere in Deutschland und den USA.Göttingen: Optimus, 2015. ISBN 3-86376-164-2
  37. ^ O'Toole, Thomas (September 1, 2009). "NCAA welcomes Simon Fraser, first Canadian member school". USA Today. Retrieved November 1, 2011.
  38. ^ Lemire, Joe (August 5, 2009). "Canadian school's admittance to NCAA may change rules up north". Sports Illustrated. Archived from the original on October 5, 2011. Retrieved November 1, 2011.
  39. ^ Stark-Mason, Rachel (January 20, 2018). "Division II votes to permit membership applications from schools in Mexico". NCAA. Retrieved June 25, 2020.
  40. ^ Dibble, Sandra (February 19, 2020). "Tijuana's CETYS University wants to be first Mexican member of NCAA". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved June 25, 2020.
  41. ^ "NCAA members approve new constitution" (Press release). NCAA. January 20, 2022. Retrieved January 21, 2022.
  42. ^ Murphy, Dan (January 20, 2022). "NCAA member schools vote to ratify new streamlined constitution". Retrieved January 21, 2022.
  43. ^ "Mason, John H.". Mason, John H., (13 June 1875–15 June 1951). Who's Who. 2007. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u240448.
  44. ^ Play-by-play: radio, television, and big-time college sport. July 1, 2002.
  45. ^ "State Compensation Ins. Fund v. Industrial Com'n". Justia Law. Retrieved February 27, 2020.
  46. ^ CBS News/New York Times Polls, 1977-1978. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (Report). 1984. doi:10.3886/icpsr07818.
  47. ^ Beiner, Ronald (1953). Political philosophy : what it is and why it matters. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107707115. OCLC 885338105.[page needed]
  48. ^ Li, David K. (August 26, 2023). "Meet the man who thinks he 'screwed up' college football with a Supreme Court win". NBC News. Retrieved September 2, 2023.
  49. ^ "Ranbaxy agrees to pay $500 million drug safety settlement". Reactions Weekly. 1453 (1): 4. May 25, 2013. doi:10.1007/s40278-013-3239-y. S2CID 195088138.
  50. ^ Ginsburg, Ruth Bader (October 1, 2004). "Remarks of Ruth Bader Ginsburg, March 11, 2004, CUNY School of Law". CUNY Law Review. 7 (2): 221. doi:10.31641/clr070202.
  51. ^ Paskus, Thomas (2010). NCAA Division I Academic Progress Rate, 2011. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (Report). doi:10.3886/icpsr26801.v2.
  52. ^ a b c d e Swaim, Norman M. (1983). Factors influencing college basketball players to attend selected NCAA Division I colleges, NCAA Division II colleges or NAIA colleges or NCAA Division III colleges (MS thesis). Iowa State University. doi:10.31274/rtd-180813-7435.
  53. ^ "Porter, Leonard Keith". Porter, Leonard Keith, (Born 17 March 1952), Chairman, e Asset Management, since 2014. Who's Who. Oxford University Press. December 1, 2007. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.59364.
  54. ^ "New York Times New York City Poll, September 2003". Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. 2004. doi:10.3886/icpsr03919.
  55. ^ a b c Strauss, Ben (August 17, 2015). "N.L.R.B. Rejects Northwestern Football Players' Union Bid". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 27, 2020.
  56. ^ Morey, Alex (July 13, 2018). "Former University of Central Florida kicker scores courtroom win in YouTube case". FIRE. Retrieved February 28, 2021.
  57. ^ "High court rules against NCAA on compensation". June 21, 2021. Retrieved July 28, 2021.
  58. ^ "Growth of NCAA Apparent; But Optimism Still Abounds" (PDF). NCAA News. June 15, 1973. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 16, 2014. Retrieved November 6, 2009.
  59. ^ "NCAA will move in 1989 to Overland Park, Kansas – NCAA News – May 4, 1988" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 16, 2014.
  60. ^ a b c "Final Four: Indianapolis competes with Dallas, Denver and Kansas City for the NCAA's new headquarters". Indiana Business Magazine. March 1, 1997. Retrieved November 6, 2009.
  61. ^ "NCAA headquarters in Indianapolis to open July 26". NCAA. July 15, 1999. Archived from the original on April 11, 2014. Retrieved April 11, 2014.
  62. ^ "NCAA Elects Mark Emmert as New President", April 29, 2010.
  63. ^ "NCAA Invests in Largest Officiating Management Organizations in Amateur Sports". September 25, 2008. Archived from the original on April 13, 2014. Retrieved November 6, 2009.
  64. ^ NCAA invests in officiating companies Archived June 5, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  65. ^ a b c Lapointe, Joe (October 11, 2002). "The N.C.A.A. Selects Brand As Its Chief". The New York Times. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
  66. ^ Wieberg, Steve (September 16, 2009). "NCAA president Myles Brand dies after battle with cancer". USA Today. Archived from the original on September 22, 2009. Retrieved September 16, 2009.
  67. ^ Senior VP Jim Isch named interim president Isch pledges to further Brand's focus Archived September 29, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, NCAA News, September 22, 2009
  68. ^ "NCAA Announces Governor Charlie Baker to be Next President" (Press release). NCAA. December 15, 2022. Retrieved December 15, 2022.
  69. ^ Christianson, Erik (October 8, 2012). "NCAA names first chief medical officer". – The Official Site of the NCAA. Retrieved August 17, 2020.
  70. ^ "Big schools win battle". St. Petersburg Independent. Associated Press. January 13, 1978. p. 5C. Archived from the original on March 7, 2016.
  71. ^ "Division I Championships". Retrieved September 5, 2022.
  72. ^ a b c "NCAA Champions Summary" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on March 20, 2014.
  73. ^ Hart, Algerian; Brooks, F. Erik (2016). The Student Athlete's Guide to College Success. ABC-CLIO. p. 2. ISBN 9781440847042. Retrieved March 2, 2023 – via Google Books.
  74. ^ "NCAA Eligibility Center COVID-19 Updates | Initial Eligibility". Retrieved November 30, 2022.
  75. ^ 2009–2010 Guide for the College-Bound Athletes
  76. ^ Hishinuma, Earl S.; Fremstad, John S. (1997). "NCAA College Freshmen Academic Requirements: Academic Standards or Unfair Roadblocks for Students with Learning Disabilities?". Journal of Learning Disabilities. 30 (6): 589–598 [589–591]. doi:10.1177/002221949703000602. PMID 9364896. S2CID 38939257.
  77. ^ "Bylaw 13.9.1 Letter-of-intent Prohibition". 2018–19 NCAA Division III Manual (PDF). NCAA. pp. 80–81. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 18, 2019. Retrieved January 28, 2019.
  78. ^ Rittenberg, Adam (May 8, 2017). "Collegiate Commissioners Association approves early signing period for football". Retrieved May 9, 2017.
  79. ^ "Football recruiting now a 24/7/365 event". ESPN. October 22, 2010. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
  80. ^ a b Elkin, Ali (August 17, 2011). "NCAA's stricter academic rules: What does it mean for your team?". This Just In (blog). CNN. Archived from the original on May 13, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
  81. ^ "Prize Money" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 12, 2020. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
  82. ^ "NCAA DII, DIII membership approves Sand Volleyball as 90th championship" (Press release). National Collegiate Athletic Association. January 17, 2015. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
  83. ^ "NCAA's newest championship will be called beach volleyball" (Press release). National Collegiate Athletic Association. June 30, 2015. Retrieved July 3, 2015.
  84. ^ "National Collegiate Men's Gymnastics Championships" (PDF). NCAA. p. 3. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  85. ^ "2021–22 NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rates Report" (PDF). NCAA. October 27, 2022. Retrieved December 26, 2022.
  86. ^ "Emerging Sports for Women". NCAA. Archived from the original on April 27, 2011. Retrieved September 1, 2011.
  87. ^ a b c "Student-Athlete Participation 1981-1982–2010-11: NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rates Report" (PDF). NCAA. 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 30, 2017. Retrieved September 17, 2021.
  88. ^ Owoc, Karen. "Title IX and Its Effect on Men's Collegiate Athletics" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 16, 2009. Retrieved February 16, 2012.
  89. ^ Dellenger, Ross; Forde, Pat (June 11, 2020). "A Collegiate Model in Crisis: The Crippling Impact of Schools Cutting Sports". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  90. ^ "NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rates Report • 2012-13" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 4, 2015.
  91. ^ a b c d e f g h "NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rates Report • 2021-22" (PDF).
  92. ^ List of NCAA schools with the most NCAA Division I championships
  93. ^ "Bylaw 20.02.5: Multisport Conference". 2020–21 NCAA Division I Manual (PDF). August 7, 2020. pp. 394–95. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 31, 2020. Retrieved May 8, 2022.
  94. ^ "Bylaw 20.02.6: Football Bowl Subdivision Conference". 2020–21 NCAA Division I Manual (PDF). August 7, 2020. p. 395. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 31, 2020. Retrieved April 17, 2022.
  95. ^ "Who We Are: Our Three Divisions". NCAA. Retrieved May 8, 2022.
  96. ^ "DI Council approves changes to notification-of-transfer windows" (Press release). NCAA. October 4, 2023. Retrieved October 7, 2023.
  97. ^ "Bylaw 20.10.3 Sports Sponsorship". 2017–18 NCAA Division II Manual (PDF). p. 316. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 25, 2018. Retrieved May 8, 2022.
  98. ^ "Divisional Differences and the History of Multidivision Classification". NCAA. Archived from the original on July 14, 2015. Retrieved April 17, 2022.
  99. ^ "Bylaw 20.11.3: Sports Sponsorship". 2021–22 NCAA Division I Manual. NCAA. August 1, 2021. pp. 221–25. Archived from the original on November 1, 2020. Retrieved May 8, 2022.
  100. ^ "NCAA TELEVISION RIGHTS OVERVIEW" (PDF). May 10, 2022. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 5, 2023. Retrieved January 27, 2024.
  101. ^ "EA Sports Didn't Need the NCAA's Logo, and Maybe It Didn't Want It". Kotaku. July 21, 2013. Retrieved July 22, 2013.
  102. ^ Goldfarb, Andrew (July 17, 2013). "NCAA Will Not Renew WA Sports Contract". IGN. Retrieved July 17, 2013.
  103. ^ Sanger, Kevin L. (1995). Athletic directors, faculty athletic representatives, and women's basketball coaches perceptions of Title IX compliance at NCAA Division III institutions (Thesis). Iowa State University. doi:10.31274/rtd-180814-233.
  104. ^ Busch, Elizabeth Kaufer (May 20, 2018). Title IX. doi:10.4324/9781315689760. ISBN 9781315689760.
  105. ^ a b Wenner, Lawrence A.; Billings, Andrew C. (2017). Sport, media and mega-events. London. ISBN 9781138930384. OCLC 962234703.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  106. ^ a b c d Churchill, Kevin (2015). Are Student-Athletes in the NCAA Exploited? (Thesis). Carleton University. doi:10.22215/etd/2015-10959.
  107. ^ "Transgender Policy Approved". NCAA News Archive. September 13, 2011. Retrieved August 5, 2022.
  108. ^ "NCAA Adopts Sudden New Policy For Transgender Athletes". HuffPost. January 20, 2022. Retrieved January 20, 2022.
  109. ^ "NCAA Facilitator Resigns in Protest Over Trans Policy". Athlete Ally. January 24, 2022. Retrieved August 5, 2022.
  110. ^ "Diversity Facilitator Withdraws From NCAA Program in Wake of Association's Trans Eligibility Change". Sports Illustrated. January 24, 2022. Retrieved August 5, 2022.
  111. ^ Fowler, Pat (2007). "Student-Athlete Gambling: The FCCG, NCAA and NFHS Team Up for Student-Athlete Programming". APA PsycNet Direct. doi:10.1037/e595762007-009.
  112. ^ Lohn, John (December 19, 2021). "Without NCAA Action, the Effects of Lia Thomas Situation Are Akin to Doping". Swimming World. Retrieved December 22, 2021.
  113. ^ Churchill, Kevin T. D. (2015). Are Student-Athletes in the NCAA Exploited?. Carleton University. OCLC 1032992240.
  114. ^ Fil, Walter G. (December 1, 1999). "Whither object orientation? What is object orientation, anyway?". ACM SIGAPL APL Quote Quad. 30 (2): 3–6. doi:10.1145/351301.351302. S2CID 2007443.
  115. ^ Katz, Robert (October 27, 2015). "Indiana's Flawed Religious Freedom Law". Indiana Law Review. 49 (1): 37. doi:10.18060/4806.0060. Archived from the original on August 25, 2023.
  116. ^ a b Kerrigan, Heather (July 15, 2016). Historic Documents of 2015. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications. ISBN 9781506333502. OCLC 956376398.
  117. ^ a b Denham, Bryan E. (2017), "The NCAA Basketball Championships", Sport, Media and Mega-Events, Routledge, pp. 232–246, doi:10.4324/9781315680521-16, ISBN 9781315680521
  118. ^ Reisyan, Garo D. (March 2017). "The Times of Random Leadership Capacity Are over". Leader to Leader. 2017 (84): 17–23. doi:10.1002/ltl.20286.
  119. ^ Kevin Bruyneel (2016). "Race, Colonialism, and the Politics of Indian Sports Names and Mascots: The Washington Football Team Case". Native American and Indigenous Studies. 3 (2): 1. doi:10.5749/natiindistudj.3.2.0001. S2CID 157543200.
  120. ^ Kalita, Deep; Tarnavchyk, Ihor; Sundquist, David; Samanta, Satyabrata; Bahr, James; Shafranska, Oleana; Sibi, Mukund; Chisholm, Bret (July 1, 2015). "Novel biobased poly(vinyl ether)s for coating applications". INFORM: International News on Fats, Oils, and Related Materials. 26 (7): 472–475. doi:10.21748/inform.07.2015.472.
  121. ^ a b "Infractions Process". NCAA. Retrieved September 17, 2021.
  122. ^ "Baylor University, Former Basketball Coaches Penalized for Multiple Violations of NCAA Rules" (Press release). NCAA. Archived from the original on December 25, 2008. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
  123. ^ "Auburn records reveal details of Newton scandal". ESPN. Associated Press. November 4, 2011. Retrieved September 17, 2021.
  124. ^ "NCAA Corporate Champions and Partners |". Retrieved October 12, 2022.
  125. ^ root (May 28, 2010). "Not For Profit Definition | Investopedia". Retrieved August 3, 2016.
  126. ^ Tracy, Marc; Strauss, Ben (September 30, 2015). "Court Strikes Down Payments to College Athletes". The New York Times. Retrieved September 30, 2015.
  127. ^ a b c "NCAA has net assets of $627 million, say records". USA Today. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
  128. ^ Eichelberger, Curtis; Condon, Christopher (August 27, 2013). "NCAA's Investments Hit $527 Million as Gains Reach 11%". Retrieved August 3, 2016.
  129. ^ a b c NCAA: Where does the money go?
  130. ^ a b Sports Illustrated: NCAA Reports $1.1 Billion in Revenues
  131. ^ a b NCAA tops $1 billion in revenue
  132. ^ Tollison, Robert D. (April 13, 2012). Kahane, Leo H; Shmanske, Stephen (eds.). "To Be or Not to Be". The Oxford Handbook of Sports Economics. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195387773.001.0001. ISBN 9780195387773. Retrieved August 17, 2020.
  133. ^ Blair, Roger D.; Wang, Wenche (March 1, 2018). "The NCAA Cartel and Antitrust Policy". Review of Industrial Organization. 52 (2): 351–368. doi:10.1007/s11151-017-9603-y. ISSN 1573-7160. S2CID 158775179.
  134. ^ "Study: "The $6 Billion Heist Robbing College Athletes Under the Guise of Amateurism"". National College Players Association. May 17, 2013.
  135. ^ Board of Governors moves toward allowing student-athlete compensation for endorsements and promotions, NCAA (April 29, 2020)([2])
  136. ^ Brian Kemp signs House Bill 617, allowing Georgia's NCAA athletes to profit off Name, Image and Likeness, The Signal, Andrew Freedman,(May. 6, 2021)([3])
  137. ^ a b Nylen, Leah (June 21, 2021). "Supreme Court rules in favor of athletes in NCAA compensation case". Politico. Retrieved June 21, 2021.
  138. ^ de Vogue, Ariane; Duster, Chandelis (June 21, 2021). "Supreme Court rules against NCAA, opening door to significant increase in compensation for student athlete". CNN. Retrieved June 21, 2021.
  139. ^ Hurley, Lawrence (June 21, 2021). "In win for athletes, U.S. Supreme Court rejects some NCAA compensation limits". Reuters. Retrieved June 21, 2021.
  140. ^ Dixon, Schuyler (July 1, 2021). "NCAA clears way for athlete compensation as state laws loom". Associated Press. Retrieved July 1, 2021.
  141. ^ "NCAA NIL tracker: Which college athletes signed endorsement deals on Day 1?". FOX Sports. Retrieved October 15, 2021.
  142. ^ a b "The Most Fascinating NIL Deals in College Sports So Far". Boardroom. August 23, 2021. Retrieved November 5, 2021.
  143. ^ a b c d e "NCAA, Power 5 agree to let schools pay players". May 23, 2024. Retrieved May 24, 2024.
  144. ^ a b The Best Female College Basketball Player ESPY Award and Best Male College Basketball Player ESPY Award and Best College Football Player ESPY Awards – awarded from 1993 to 2001 – were absorbed in 2002 by the Best Female College Athlete ESPY Award and Best Male College Athlete ESPY Awards.
  145. ^ "NCAA Awards". NCAA official website. Archived from the original on November 26, 2010. Retrieved November 29, 2011.
  146. ^ "NCAA Honors Celebration". NCAA official website. Archived from the original on November 8, 2011. Retrieved November 29, 2011.

Further reading

  • Carter, W. Burlette (2006). "The Age of Innocence: The First 25 Years of the NCAA, 1906–1931" (PDF). Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment and Technology. 8 (2): 211–91.
  • Carter, W. Burlette (2000). "Student Athlete Welfare in a Restructured NCAA" (PDF). Virginia Journal of Sports and the Law. 8 (1): 1–103.
  • Carter, W. Burlette (2002). "Sounding the Death Knell for In Loco Parentis" (PDF). Indiana Law Review. 35 (3): 851–923.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to National Collegiate Athletic Association.
  • Official website Edit this at Wikidata
  • v
  • t
  • e
National Collegiate Athletic Association
Division I
Division II
Division III
Single-division or
National Collegiate sports
and championships
Related topics
  • (events listed in italics have been discontinued)

  • Category
  • Commons
Authority control databases Edit this at Wikidata
  • ISNI
  • VIAF
  • Germany
  • Israel
  • United States
  • Czech Republic
    • 2
  • MusicBrainz label